M.Elizabeth Chemistry 2010-2011
Spring Semester April 5 - April 15
- GUHS Solution SG word
- Organic Chemistry Notes (word)
- Textbook Chapter 22 ppt
- Textbook Chapter 24 ppt
Carbide and Acetyline Gas.mpg
Carbon Fuel Sources.mpg
Online Resources (Web Sites)
- Virtual Lab Kinetic Molecular Theory link
- Molarity ChemTour Dilutions ChemTour Migration of Ions ChemTour Saturated Solutions ChemTour
- Solutions with Canadian Connections link
Chapter 22 contains the following units:
Cyclic Alkanes and Alkane Properties
Alkenes and Alkynes
Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Petroleum
Chapter 23 contains the following units:
Functional GroupsChapter 24 contains the following units:
Alcohols, Ethers, and Amines
Other Reactions of Organic Compounds
A solid understanding of chemical and biological concepts is required to describe the versatility with which carbon
atoms form molecules and to illustrate the structure of organic and biological molecules and the polymers they form. An
understanding of these concepts is also necessary to be able to name organic molecules and to identify organic functional groups.
10. The bonding characteristics of carbon allow the formation of many different organic molecules of varied sizes, shapes, and
chemical properties and provide the biochemical basis of life. As a basis for understanding this concept: a. Students know large
molecules (polymers), such as proteins, nucleic acids, and starch, are formed by repetitive combinations of simple subunits.
Students can readily visualize large molecules called polymers as consisting of repetitive and systematic combinations of 10. b. Students know the bonding characteristics of carbon that result in the formation of a large variety of structures ranging
smaller, simpler groups of atoms, including carbon. All polymeric molecules, including biological molecules, such as proteins,
nucleic acids, and starch, are made up of various unique combinations of a relatively small number of chemically simple
subunits. For example, starch is a polymer made from a large number of simple sugar molecules joined together.
from simple hydrocarbons to complex polymers and biological molecules.
Building on what they learned in grade eight about the unique bonding characteristics of carbon, students explore in greater 10. c. Students know amino acids are the building blocks of proteins.
depth the incredible diversity of carbon-based molecules. They are reminded that, given carbon’s four bonding electrons and
four vacancies available to form bonds, carbon is able to form stable covalent bonds—single or multiple—with other carbon
atoms and with atoms of other elements. Students learn how the presence of single, double, and triple bonds determines
the geometry of carbon-based molecules. The variety of these molecules is enormous: over 16 million carbon-containing
compounds are known. The compounds range from simple hydrocarbon molecules (e.g., methane and ethane) to complex
organic polymers and biological molecules (e.g., proteins) and include many manufactured polymers used in daily life (e.g.,
polyester, nylon, and polyethylene).
Proteins are large single-stranded polymers often made up of thousands of relatively small subunits called amino acids. The 10. d.* Students know the system for naming the ten simplest linear hydrocarbons and isomers that contain single bonds, simple
bond attaching two amino acids, known as the peptide bond, is identical for any pair of amino acids. The chemical composition
of the amino acid itself varies. Variation in composition and ordering of amino acids gives protein molecules their unique
properties and shapes. These properties and shapes define the protein’s functions, many of which are essential to the life of
an organism. The blueprint for building the protein molecules is deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Biotechnology is advancing
rapidly as more is learned about DNA, amino acid sequences, and the shapes and functions of proteins.
hydrocarbons with double and triple bonds, and simple molecules that contain a benzene ring.
Organic molecules can be simple or extremely complex. The naming system for these molecules, however, is relatively 10. e.* Students know how to identify the functional groups that form the basis of alcohols, ketones, ethers, amines, esters,
straightforward and reflects the composition and structure of each molecule. Each name is made up of a prefix and a suffix.
The prefix tells the number of carbon atoms in the longest continuous sequence of the molecule, and the suffix indicates
the kind of bond between carbon atoms. For example, the four simplest hydrocarbon molecules are methane, ethane,
propane, and butane. The prefixes, meth-, eth-, prop-, and but-refer to one, two, three, and four carbons, respectively. The -
ane ending indicates that there are only carbon-carbon single bonds. Ene endings are used for double bonds and -yne for
triple bonds. Benzene, C6H6, is a flat hexagonally shaped molecule of six carbon atoms bonded to each other. Many
compounds can be built by substitutions on straight-chain hydrocarbons and benzene rings.
aldehydes, and organic acids.
Organic molecules are grouped into classes based on patterns of bonding between carbon and noncarbon atoms (e.g., nitrogen 10. f.* Students know the R-group structure of amino acids and know how they combine to form the polypeptide backbone
and oxygen). Groups based on unique patterns of bonding are called functional groups. Examples of these groups are alcohols,
ketones, ethers, amines, esters, aldehydes, and organic (carboxylic) acids.
structure of proteins.
Amino acid molecules have a well-known structure, and all contain a side chain called an R-group. Differences in the R-group
are the basis for differences between the amino acids. Bonding two amino acids creates a dipeptide, bonding three creates
a tripeptide, and adding more creates a polymer