Twin Rivers Unified School District Key Concepts
2. Cell Biology (1st Semester)
Note: The abbreviation CCS stands for California Content Standards referenced below.
- Students will compare and contrast the structures between prokaryotic cells,
eukaryotic cells, and viruses. (1c)
- Students will describe the structure and function of cell parts, specifically: cell
membrane, nucleus, cell wall, ribosomes, mitochondria, chloroplasts, endoplasmic
reticulum, Golgi Apparatus, vacuoles. (1a, 1g, 1e, 1f, 1j)
- Students will diagram and explain the processes of photosynthesis and cellular
respiration. (1f, 1g)
The fundamental life processes of plants and animals depend on a variety of chemical
reactions that occur in specialized areas of the organism's cells. As a basis for
understanding this concept:
- Students know cells are enclosed within semipermeable membranes that
regulate their interaction with their surroundings.
- Students know enzymes are proteins that catalyze biochemical reactions
without altering the reaction equilibrium and the activities of enzymes depend
on the temperature, ionic conditions, and the pH of the surroundings.
- Students know how prokaryotic cells, eukaryotic cells (including those from
plants and animals), and viruses differ in complexity and general structure.
- Students know the central dogma of molecular biology outlines the flow of
information from transcription of ribonucleic acid (RNA) in the nucleus to
translation of proteins on ribosomes in the cytoplasm.
- Students know the role of the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus in the
secretion of proteins.
- Students know usable energy is captured from sunlight by chloroplasts and is
stored through the synthesis of sugar from carbon dioxide.
- Students know the role of the mitochondria in making stored chemical-bond
energy available to cells by completing the breakdown of glucose to carbon
- Students know most macromolecules (polysaccharides, nucleic acids, proteins,
lipids) in cells and organisms are synthesized from a small collection of simple
- * Students know how chemiosmotic gradients in the mitochondria and
chloroplast store energy for ATP production.
- * Students know how eukaryotic cells are given shape and internal organization
by a cytoskeleton or cell wall or both.
Standards that all students are expected to achieve in the course of their studies are unmarked.
Standards that all students should have the opportunity to learn are marked with an asterisk (*).