Grant Joint Union High School District Key Concepts
3. Genetics (1st Semester)
Note: The abbreviation CCS stands for California Content Standards referenced below.
- Students will demonstrate the role of DNA and RNA in the processes of
replication, transcription, and translation. (1a, 4a, 4b, 4c, 5a, 5b)
- Students will describe the processes of genetic engineering and biotechnology,
and analyze the ethical implications. (5c, 5d)
4. Genes are a set of instructions encoded in the DNA sequence of each organism
that specify the sequence of amino acids in proteins characteristic of that organism.
As a basis for understanding this concept:
- Students know the general pathway by which ribosomes synthesize proteins,
using tRNAs to translate genetic information in mRNA.
- Students know how to apply the genetic coding rules to predict the sequence
of amino acids from a sequence of codons in RNA.
- Students know how mutations in the DNA sequence of a gene may or may not
affect the expression of the gene or the sequence of amino acids in an encoded
- Students know specialization of cells in multicellular organisms is usually due
to different patterns of gene expression rather than to differences of the
- Students know proteins can differ from one another in the number and
sequence of amino acids.
- * Students know why proteins having different amino acid sequences typically
have different shapes and chemical properties.
5. The genetic composition of cells can be altered by incorporation of exogenous DNA
into the cells. As a basis for understanding this concept:
- Students know the general structures and functions of DNA, RNA, and protein.
- Students know how to apply base-pairing rules to explain precise copying of
DNA during semiconservative replication and transcription of information from
DNA into mRNA.
- Students know how genetic engineering (biotechnology) is used to produce
novel biomedical and agricultural products.
- * Students know how basic DNA technology (restriction digestion by
endonucleases, gel electrophoresis, ligation, and transformation) is used to
construct recombinant DNA molecules.
- * Students know how exogenous DNA can be inserted into bacterial cells to
alter their genetic makeup and support expression of new protein products.
Standards that all students are expected to achieve in the course of their studies are unmarked.
Standards that all students should have the opportunity to learn are marked with an asterisk (*).