Grant Joint Union High School District Key Concepts
4.  Genetics (2nd Semester)
  1. Students will discuss the role of meiosis, segregation and independent
    assortment of chromosomes within gametes in sexual reproduction, which leads
    to genetic variation in a population. (CCS 2a, 2b, 2c, 3b)
  2. Students will apply how genotype influences phenotype and predict probable
    outcomes in various modes of inheritance using Punnett Squares, and pedigree
    charts. (CCS 2g, 3a, 3c)
   c.  Students will explain that fertilization of gametes generates a zygote that
        develops into a multicellular organism. (CCS 2d, 2e)

Note: The abbreviation CCS stands for California Content Standards referenced below.
California Standards
2. Mutation and sexual reproduction lead to genetic variation in a population. As a
basis for understanding this concept:
  1. Students know meiosis is an early step in sexual reproduction in which the
    pairs of chromosomes separate and segregate randomly during cell division to
    produce gametes containing one chromosome of each type.
  2. Students know only certain cells in a multicellular organism undergo meiosis.
  3. Students know how random chromosome segregation explains the probability
    that a particular allele will be in a gamete.
  4. Students know new combinations of alleles may be generated in a zygote
    through the fusion of male and female gametes (fertilization).
  5. Students know why approximately half of an individual's DNA sequence comes
    from each parent.
  6. Students know the role of chromosomes in determining an individual's sex.
  7. Students know how to predict possible combinations of alleles in a zygote from
    the genetic makeup of the parents.

3. A multicellular organism develops from a single zygote, and its phenotype depends
on its genotype, which is established at fertilization. As a basis for understanding
this concept:
  1. Students know how to predict the probable outcome of phenotypes in a genetic
    cross from the genotypes of the parents and mode of inheritance (autosomal or
    X-linked, dominant or recessive).
  2. Students know the genetic basis for Mendel's laws of segregation and
    independent assortment.
  3. * Students know how to predict the probable mode of inheritance from a
    pedigree diagram showing phenotypes.
  4. * Students know how to use data on frequency of recombination at meiosis to
    estimate genetic distances between loci and to interpret genetic maps of
    chromosomes. o alter their genetic makeup and support expression of new
    protein products.

Standards that all students are expected to achieve in the course of their studies are unmarked.
Standards that all students should have the opportunity to learn are marked with an asterisk (*).
Unit 4: Genetics - Heredity Standards                                       Biology Course Outline        California Framework