Grant Joint Union High School District Key Concepts
6. Physiology (2nd Semester)
  1. Students will describe and explain the structures and functions of the
    reproductive organ system. (9a, 9b, 9e)
  2. Students will identify how pathogens such as HIV invade the body and how the
    immune system uses various mechanisms to defend and protect the body. (10a,
    10b, 10c, 10e)
  3. Students will describe and explain the structures and functions of the digestive
    organ system, including the function of macromolecules and their synthesis from
    simple precursors. (1b. 1h. 4e. 4f, 9a, 9b, 9c)
  4. Students will describe and explain the structures and functions of the nervous
    organ system. (9a, 9b, 9e)
  5. Students will describe and explain the structures and functions of the
    cardiovascular organ system. (9a, 9b, 9e)

Note: The abbreviation CCS stands for California Content Standards referenced below.
California Standards
Physiology
9. As a result of the coordinated structures and functions of organ systems, the
internal environment of the human body remains relatively stable (homeostatic)
despite changes in the outside environment. As a basis for understanding this concept:
  1. Students know how the complementary activity of major body systems provides
    cells with oxygen and nutrients and removes toxic waste products such as
    carbon dioxide.
  2. Students know how the nervous system mediates communication between
    different parts of the body and the body's interactions with the environment.
  3. Students know how feedback loops in the nervous and endocrine systems
    regulate conditions in the body.
  4. Students know the functions of the nervous system and the role of neurons in
    transmitting electrochemical impulses.
  5. Students know the roles of sensory neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons in
    sensation, thought, and response.
  6. * Students know the individual functions and sites of secretion of digestive
    enzymes (amylases, proteases, nucleases, lipases), stomach acid, and bile salts.
  7. * Students know the homeostatic role of the kidneys in the removal of
    nitrogenous wastes and the role of the liver in blood detoxification and glucose
    balance.
  8. * Students know the cellular and molecular basis of muscle contraction,
    including the roles of actin, myosin, Ca+2 , and ATP.
  9. * Students know how hormones (including digestive, reproductive,
    osmoregulatory) provide internal feedback mechanisms for homeostasis at the
    cellular level and in whole organisms.
10. Organisms have a variety of mechanisms to combat disease. As a basis for under-
standing the human immune response:
  1. Students know the role of the skin in providing nonspecific defenses against
    infection.
  2. Students know the role of antibodies in the body's response to infection.
  3. Students know how vaccination protects an individual from infectious diseases.
  4. Students know there are important differences between bacteria and viruses
    with respect to their requirements for growth and replication, the body's
    primary defenses against bacterial and viral infections, and effective
    treatments of these infections.
  5. Students know why an individual with a compromised immune system (for
    example, a person with AIDS) may be unable to fight off and survive infections
    by microorganisms that are usually benign.
  6. * Students know the roles of phagocytes, B-lymphocytes, and T-lymphocytes in
    the immune system
Standards that all students are expected to achieve in the course of their studies are unmarked.
Standards that all students should have the opportunity to learn are marked with an asterisk (*).
Unit 6: Anatomy/Physiology Standards                             Biology Course Outline        California Framework