What do you mean by geologic record?
The geologic record consists of rock units, each of which records some event or series of events that occurred in
the past.

What are rocks?
Rocks are defined as aggregates of one or more minerals.

What are minerals?
  1. naturally occurring
  2. inorganic
  3. solids
  4. definite chemical composition
  5. characteristic internal crystal structure (arrangement of atoms in lattice)

How do rocks form?

By cooling, hardening, and crystallizing from hot, molten lava - Igneous rocks

By forming from the compaction and cementation of sediments -
Sedimentary rocks

By forming from the precipitation of dissolved chemicals in water - Chemical and Biochemical Sedimentary rocks

By forming from accumulated organic matter- Organic Sedimentary rocks (coals)

By the alteration of pre-existing  rocks by heat and pressure - Metamorphic rocks

How does the
rock cycle work
http://www.minsocam.org/MSA/K12/rkcycle/rkcycleindex.html